Formulation Of Human Resources Strategy

The formulation of the organization’s human resources strategy begins with basic questions concerning how employment will be structured, what corporate culture will be fostered, how careers will unfold in the organization, what sort of employees will be sought, and so forth. Within this general category of tasks we include both organization-wide human resources strategy and the tailoring of that strategy to specific business units, regional units, functions, or divisions.

Especially important in terms of organization-wide strategy are answers to the questions: How consistent should human resources policies and practices be throughout the enterprise? Where are distinctions in policies and practices (across locales or employee subgroups) desirable? How much latitude should particular organizational units be given in formulating their own human resources strategies?

After the broad outlines of strategy have been set, questions about general policies arise, such as: What will be the broad base of compensation and performance management throughout the organization or in particular units? What tasks will be outsourced, and will the outsourcing be done via labor contractors or independent contractors? What training will be done in-house, and what will be outsourced, and to whom? It is hard to draw a line between strategy and policy, and we will not make any attempt to do so: In this category we will include any human resources related activity that sets rules for the management of human resources that apply broadly to groups of employees.

Formulating strategy and general policies, it seems to us, is a managerial task of the utmost importance. It is fraught with ambiguity; there is no checklist of what to do or what to think about. The outcomes are noisy-how do you know if you’ve succeeded? Results often take a long time to be realized. Interdependencies with other parts of business strategy are tight.

At the same time, dependence on local environmental conditions can be important, so the local environment must be well understood by those who formulate human resources strategy and policies. Finally, the tasks here strongly mix guardian and star elements. Poorly aligned or inconsistent human resources policies and practices can be devastating for an organization. At the same time, the ability to see beyond conventional wisdom, to put together a human resources system that works especially well, is as potent a competitive weapon as one can imagine.

– Implementation of Strategy and Policies. In this category we have in mind tasks that involve nontrivial judgment in fitting general policies and procedures to specific cases. Performance evaluation of individuals and teams, crafting job designs, decisions on whom to hire (and where specifically to look, although this could be construed as part of policy formation), decisions on whom to promote, decisions on training for individuals, specific layoff decisions, and the like all fit here.

Ambiguity in these tasks is not particularly high if a well-formed set of human resources policies and practices is in place; however, outcomes are noisy and feedback can be substantially delayed. Interdependencies with other parts of the business can be substantial; decision-makers should have a fairly well-developed “big picture” of the organization or, at least, of the specific function involved. Because of reputation and social comparison effects, these tasks are predominately guardian roles, although especially when it comes to recognition of talent and accurate placement of individuals, some star aspects are involved.

– Record Keeping, Compliance, and Personnel Service Delivery. Here we have in mind those tasks that, unfortunately, have come to dominate many line managers’ perceptions of what the human resources Department does: compliance reports; keeping employee records; filling out forms for benefits and payroll; and so forth, on down to buying the beverages and pizza for the regularly scheduled employee beer blast.

There isn’t a lot of ambiguity here and performance is fairly easily monitored. The job is a mix of some guardian and mainly foot-soldier tasks: Screwing up compliance reports can get the firm in trouble with legal authorities, and a bad benefits office can reduce employee morale pretty quickly, but management that isn’t completely asleep or complacent can usually avoid the big disasters in this realm.

This enumeration of the tasks involved in doing human resources management helps clarify a root problem with how human resources is traditionally organized. In the traditional organization, this bundles together all these tasks, a small fraction of the activities account for a huge proportion of the value added by the function, by creating potential upside and/or helping the organization avoid downside disasters. In contrast, most of the activities conducted, measured by time expended or paper consumed, are the routine foot-soldier tasks, perceived as adding little value by managers and employees. Complying with rules and filling out forms imposed by central human resources regarding job searches, performance appraisal, or compensation and benefits – or being required to have a human resources representative present during a sensitive conference with a subordinate are frequently not viewed as helping matters very much. And employees, once they are hired, often interact with the human resources department only when they have a problem or concern, so they may not have an especially positive view of the function either.

In any event, it is not altogether surprising that a function that is perceived as responsible for explaining benefits programs, processing change-of-address forms, complying with governmental regulations, and enforcing policies that limit managers’ discretion on how they can treat employees-or that is touted as the “conscience” or “kinder, gentler side” of the corporation-is unlikely to be viewed as a hard-charging, tough-minded, strategic business partner.

In addition it’s easier to measure how well the human resources department is doing in terms of filling out forms and delivering routine services; it’s a lot harder to measure how well it does at formulating and implementing a human resources strategy.

Source by Artur Victoria

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.

Source by Sanjoy Deka

Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students At Risk With Learning Disabilities

The main purpose of this study was to determine the specific learning disabilities, level of self efficacy, self esteem, multiple intelligences, parent and teacher’s involvement of students at risks with learning disabilities and their relationships to academic performance of high school students at risk with learning disabilities in order to design a supportive classroom environment for these children.

This study was based on the theory that academic performance of students at risk with learning disabilities is dependent on the self-efficacy, self-esteem, multiple intelligences and parents and teachers’ involvement. The self-efficacy includes general self efficacy and social self efficacy. The multiple intelligences includes the Linguistic Intelligence, Logical-Mathematical Intelligence, Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence, Spatial Intelligence, and Nature Intelligence. This study hypothesized that there is significant relationship between self-efficacy, self-esteem, multiple intelligence, parents and teachers’ involvement to the academic performance of students at risk with learning disabilities.

The research design was descriptive using cross tabulation technique. The study was conducted at Gingoog City Comprehensive National High School,Division of Gingoog City, Region X. Philippines. The respondents of the study involved the thirty four ( 34 ) students at risk with LD. Five ( 5 ) sets of questionnaires were being administered to gather the needed data such as the Self efficacy Scale, Barksdale Self-esteem Evaluation Index ( SEI), Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment ( MIDAS) and Parent Involvement Checklist. Each questionnaire has undergone the test of validity and reliability. The statistical tool used were frequency, percentage, weighted mean and cross tabulation analysis.

It is concluded that most of the second year students at risk with learning disabilities have mild dyslexia, mild dyscalculia and mild dysgraphia. These students have suffered low general self efficacy, low and lack of social self efficacy and all of them have lack of self -esteem. Each of these students possesses different types of intelligences and although the said intelligences are low still, none of them has linguistic and logical intelligences and most of them have average general academic performance. The general self -efficacy and social self efficacy, self esteem, multiple intelligences do not significantly affect the academic performance of the students. However, teachers’ support play a major role in the academic performance of LD at risk. While there is a low correlation between parents involvement and general self -efficacy and between parent involvement and multiple intelligences, the kind of parental involvement of the students do not affect the social self efficacy, self esteem, and academic performance of the students.

From this conclusion, the supportive classroom environment intended for students at risks with learning disabilities are consist of the following; knowledge about LD, establishing learning centers like reading centers, writing/ spelling centers, multiple intelligence centers, parent involvement nook, teachers’ attitude, academic performance update, remedial reading intervention, accommodations and classroom size. With the right interventions in reading with parents, teachers and administrators’ support, these children with LD can succeed in their lives and become worthwhile persons in the community and country as a whole.

Source by Susan Aparejo

Autism Apps to the Rescue

A new generation of electronic education aids, called “autism apps”, are proving to be useful for special needs children like those affected with autism spectrum disorder. These aids include apps like “Math on the Farm” and “Make Sentences” that are a new generation of gadgets designed to be much more than a recreation.

Autism app development is an emerging field and has immense potential to come up with new therapies for improving the health condition of autistic children. They are a much cheaper and more effective education aid than the cumbersome adaptive technology devices used earlier.

It’s estimated that at least one in every 68 children in the US are autistic. Elsewhere, like in Australia, autism has been diagnosed in more than one percent of the population and the numbers are increasing every year.

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder widely varies across the world. The exact causes behind the disorder are unknown. But scientists believe that a combination of environmental, prenatal, and genetic factors contribute to the disorder.

Any reliable diagnosis for autism spectrum disorder must happen by the age of two. But in most cases, parents are usually late to realize that there’s something different in their children and often go into a denial mode when pointed out that their kid may be autistic.

Therapy options may vary once a child has been diagnosed of autism, which is largely based on symptoms and observing behavioral patterns. Appointments with a variety of health professionals like counselors, occupational, and speech therapists may be required. This is usually time consuming and very expensive.

Some studies suggest that behavioral intervention is the best for autistic kids and also the most effective. At least 20 hours of therapy should be provided each week for at least 12 months. But the charges for each session are at least $75 which is usually not affordable to the majority of the people. Besides, most behavioral therapists stay in big cities and options are limited for those living in small towns.

Autism apps can be used both at home and outside. They have a big potential to level the field by making the therapy options more accessible to children with autism. The autism apps like “Math on the Farm” and “Make Sentences” can provide a safe and structured environment where children can enjoy doing mathematics and brush up their sentence making skills. Autism Apps are increasingly finding favor among both teachers and parents.

Source by Kevin Carter

The Pros and Cons of Adopting IFRS by Lei Shi

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a set of accounting standards developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

IFRS has been adopted by more than 12,000 companies in over 100 nations and is becoming the global standard for the preparation of financial statements of public companies throughout the world. However, in the U.S., GAAP (General Accepted Accounting Principles) is applied. Recently, the G20 leaders have called for significant progress towards moving to one set of high-quality global accounting standards. President Obama also called for one set of standards and substantial progress to be made in 2009. Now SEC is working on an updated “roadmap” that will layout a schedule and major milestones for moving U.S. towards its adoption by all U.S. public companies. There are advantages and disadvantages of converting to IFRS, and various arguments have made for and against its adoption.

A single set of accounting standards will provide comparability, and enable companies from different parts of the world to apply the same standards. It increases transparency, allowing easier cross-border investment with greater liquidity and low cost of capital. It will also cut down the time and costs of preparing financial statements according to different standards and regulations, achieving enormous savings of capital in the longer term. The transition cost is estimated to be 8 billion dollars for the entire U.S. economy, with average one-time cost of $3.24 million dollars for multinational corporations. Since the financial reports were reduced from three to one, they will save money in the long run. The adoption of IFRS and use of uniform accounting standards will also eliminate the possible different accounting results from applying different standards and help investors to pursue various strategies including global investment diversification.Many companies may soon be required to report in multiple accounting standards if the US does not either accept or move toward IFRS. Maintaining multiple standards reporting only increases accounting and auditing costs and provides no value to any country. Over 100 countries have adopted or in the process of adopting IFRS. Delays in adopting IFRS by the US will make multi-national companies to report their primary reports in IFRS, resulting in parallel reports in US GAAP.

This will create more auditing fees and possible errors. The US should move towards the IFRS standards as a matter of urgency. As more and more countries adopt IFRS, it is in the U.S. interests to apply the same accounting standards. Most of the U.S. companies will benefit from one set of accounting standards since are multinational companies and they operating globally. IFRS will make it easier to control and monitor their subsidiaries in foreign countries and achieve cost savings from maintaining several accounting standards. It can also help to eliminate potential financial misunderstandings and simplify investment decisions. With its strong moral standard, intolerance for unethical behavior, the US has been a world leader for centuries. Its financial and accounting standards have been used by other countries as a yardstick to measure their economic and financial success until recently. We need to be a leader and the driving force in establishing and adopting international standards.

It is the time for us to get involved and play an important role in shaping the international standards. Otherwise, it will hurt us in the long run. Competition works and is a good thing because it will ensure better quality with lower price. Competition between different sets of standards will offer the advantage of getting better information. There is really no one size fits all standards. The uniform single accounting standard can stifle innovation, ingenuity, competition, creativity and capitalism entrepreneurship. The differences between GAAP and other countries’ standards can be very useful and provide insight into the reasons and values they conduct financial reporting in a particular way. By focusing on our differences, we will benefit from increased productivity, higher quality, technological innovation, thus better meet the demands of the marketplace. Switching to IFSB will give IASB monopoly status, with the potential to compromise the quality of the IASB standards. A recent survey shows that to convert to IFRS, U.S. companies have to pay more than their European counterparts. The added benefits of comparability versus cost to implement IFRS will not justify the adoption.

According to the SEC, it will cost.12% of revenues to implement the standards nationwide, which means the cost can be as high as several billion dollars. The cost to achieve the additional comparability is not worth several billion dollars. It will drain on our slowly recovering economy. From a cost benefit perspective, convergence is obviously superior to adoption. Transition to IFRS itself can present be a lot of challenges. The economy of the U.S. is the largest in the world and nobody knows exactly the scope and magnitude of applying IFRS to such a large economy. IFRS has not been tested in any country like the U.S. On the other hand, U.S. GAAP has been evolving with various changes in the U.S. and stands the test of time, especially the frauds such as Enron and Tyco International.

Enforcement can also create some problems. While the U.S. has effective enforcement, it is very challenging to implement stringent enforcement among those member countries due to the differences in economic and political system among the adopting nations and their financial reporting practices. In summary, adopting IFRS will provide comparability, increased audit efficiency, reduced information misunderstanding and cost savings as more and more economic activities become globalized. The flip side is it will eliminate competition and incentives to innovate. The quality will suffer since compromises have to be made to achieve consensus due to various political pressures and economic interest. However many support for a move to a single set global accounting standards and it is believed that the U.S. will ultimately IFRS or have IFRS and U.S. GAAP coexist.

Source by Ashlley Jarmari

Sex Education: Its Importance and Need in the Society

Sex Education, as the term clearly indicates, refers to education which is based on human sexual behavior. Parents, schools or caretakers offer it in some parts of the world to educate the children, who are stepping into their adolescence. If formally received, sex education is either taught as a full course at high school or junior high school level or in biology, health, home economics classes. Teaching sex education is rather a controversial issue; debates have been going on for several decades discussing if it should be taught formally in schools or not. Sex education in schools should exist without any doubts and apprehensions as it offers many benefits.

Adolescence is called the “age of storm and stress”. The young teenagers, during this phase of life are under deep psychological pressure. Mainly, this psychological pressure is the result of one’s growing sexual needs and the biological changes and hormonal effects on the individuals. During this time, most of the children are observed to become easily irritable. They find it difficult in most situations to deal with the family members. They might not want to talk to them about the natural changes taking place in their body and mind. In such circumstances, one highly suitable option is that of the teachers who are able to teach them to control their urges until a proper age. In schools, trained teachers would help the students to know how to deal with their sexual impulses. This role can not be replaced by parents or other entities. A classroom discussion and lesson would make them feel it is natural, and they would also feel that they are being understood by someone. However, taking them individually to psychologists or other trained educators would not help. In such a situation they might consider themselves to be different and misunderstood by family and people around them. Therefore, it becomes crystal clear that the best way to offer sex education is always in school.

It is a psychological phenomenon that children at young age are under an immense peer pressure. Something that they learn in the class with their peer group is what makes a better impression on their minds than otherwise. They are more focused in the lessons that teachers offer and are more eager asking question to clear their ambiguities. They might feel embarrassed and uneasy questioning their parents about it, but it always differs in case of the teacher in the class. This is because everyone in the class is going through the same stage. A class discussion becomes healthy source of learning as it helps in enhancing the knowledge on the subject.

Many people advocate that sex education should only be restricted to families, that is, that parents should personally educate their children. This view is totally illogical and holds complications and questions. The first point is that not all the parents would be willing to do it or would be able to do it. Secondly, this education needs a proper channel through which it should reach its required learners. There could be many possible problems in the families so they might not be able to take the role of a teacher in educating their children regarding sex. The demand of annulment of sex education from the schools is highly conservative.

Most importantly, there are many single parents, how would they take up this challenge of educating their children on their own? Parents can not properly educate their children about sex also because they lack details that qualified sex educators convey in schools. Thus, the stance of abolishing sex education in school is not a favorable thought. In many observed cases where parents or children are embarrassed about talking over sexual matters with each other, it is most likely to be uneasy situation at both the ends. This keeps the children from learning the answers to the questions they might have in their minds. This can be a great flaw of shifting the duty of sexual education from teachers to the parents. It will leave the children only half or less educated about the issue and as they say “Little knowledge is a dangerous thing”, this might end up in grave situations.

According to research, most of the parents also feel uneasy because they know that they are not equipped to provide the apt sexual information to their children. They also fail to comprehend what details and information should be concealed and what should be revealed, keeping in mind their children’s age. On the other hand, there might also be parents who would feel comfortable talking to their children about sexual matters, but only when the children bring the matter up.

Most parents, around the world, may also lack role models to look up to as they would not have talked over sexual issues with their own parents in their adolescent. This makes them inefficient to trigger their roles of educating their children in an effective way as the assigned teachers are able to do in schools.

Sex education is not limited to only a single branch of knowledge. This education focuses on a number of significant sexual matters that are offered with especially designed courses and programs. Sex education covers the education of relationships, sexual abstinence at a certain level and teaching to practice safe sex to the level of children who are thought to be sexually active. Therefore, its claim for being appropriate and guiding holds strong base.

At a certain age of adolescence, growing children have problems facing relationships and controlling their personal emotions. Conflicts related to such matters persuade many youngsters to commit suicides or take part in other immoral activities. Proper sex education in schools also concentrates in making the youngsters emotionally stronger and in educating ways to cope with relationship problems. This argument strongly shows the immense benefit of sex education in schools.

Sex education is an important health strategy and this cannot be denied. AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases can only be controlled if people are aware of precautions and have a vast knowledge in this case. This knowledge is conveyed through sex education, and if sex education is banned in schools and if parents have to educate their children, then it would not be as beneficial to the individuals and the society on the whole as teaching in school could be.

Sex education does not exist in all parts of the world. Asians are commonly regarded conservative when compared to westerners. It is not a part of their course in schools; this does not in any way mean that their teenage pregnancy rate is any lower if they are not exposed to sexual matters openly. In fact, this is one way how peers can mislead most of the youngsters and persuade them to bask in young age sexual relationships without any attempts for safety. This has resulted in serious problems such as the spread of fatal diseases like AIDS and has also increased rate of illegitimate births.

Researches have shown that the cause for ramification of STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) in the eras of 80s and 90s in the US and the UK is the lack of knowledge and information provided about sex in schools or home. Home and family has never and will never play an integral part in conveying sex education to teenagers, therefore to rely on the option of home, is to deceive your own self from the expected exigency in the future.

Some conservative groups assert that to discuss sexual issues openly is to devalue religion. No religion in the world abstain its followers from spreading the information that is so essential for human lives. Sexual behavior is natural and takes place through biological changes and this cannot be questioned as this is a part of human life. Thus people who take refuge under the religious shelter, to make their arguments strong, are misinterpreting religious ideas and laws.

Modern time is the time of internet and powerful media. Teenagers are exposed to Hollywood, TV and internet. These sources offer demonstration of sex which is highly thoughtless and casual; in this situation it is almost illogical to leave the teenagers on their sexual choices. They are young and fully excited; therefore they can not make a favorable choice. Sex education in school offers the information and knowledge they need to understand to know the responsibility that is accompanied by sexual relationships. The teacher in school helps the students to know the difference between a thoughtless and thoughtful sex. Having an urge for sex is not a problem; it is a natural process showing that the young people are developing to become adults; however the problem is having unsafe sex and hurting people through sexual choices.

People who claim that sex education in schools have more cons than pros, often come up with the statements suggesting that sex education in classroom should be avoided because the most effective tool for offering sex education, according to them is TV, films, magazines and media. Such people fail to understand that trained sex educators under especially designed programs teach sex education to children in schools. They are thus able to handle children’s problems and clear their ambiguities in the best possible way, whereas magazines, films, TV and other channels and mediums of providing sex education are be reliable. They are most of the times urging the young people by encouraging their sexual promiscuity rather than effectively teaching and educating them. This wrong approach damages the society and the individuals in disguise of ameliorating them.

People contradicting the notion insist that sex education always makes the learners have sex and experience it personally, once they learn about it in school. The reality is that sexual urge for any human being is a natural occurrence. When children reach to a certain age, whether they find people to educated them about sex or not, they do have natural instincts about it, and therefore if provided a chance they would surely want to satisfy their urge. This natural reaction can not in any way be related to the outcome of sex education in schools. In fact, the best time for letting sex education play its role is when the sexual urge increases and the teenagers want to find a source for its satisfaction. It offers individuals with the required knowledge so that they are careful. It is only then that they understand the consequences of sex leading to child birth as well as sexually transmitted diseases. Thus sex education is basically a warning and a caution for such children who are stepping into the phase of life where they would need to know all this.

Some people who go against the topic also argue that even though sex education exists, it has still not decreased the rate of teenage pregnancies. I would rather not go deep in to the moral issue of the topic, but it is important here to discuss and point out the shortcomings of our society. Social values that insist that being single, pregnant and teenagers is fine, is what has to be changed. Through educating the children and making them aware that it is just not ‘cool’ to be pregnant when single or teenager, and just because ‘others are also doing it’ does not in any way justify their actions, this change can be achieved. There are many sexual education programs that teach the learners about the grave consequences that can result in having early sex. This type of sex education in schools is helpful and makes the learners responsible and mature enough to understand the difference between morality and immorality.

People, who are against the notion, repeatedly state the question that why sex education is given so much importance when there are also many other issues connected with juvenile delinquencies such as drugs, drinking and aggressive bullying. No doubt, there are also many other issues to consider important enough to be taught in school for awareness but psychological researches show that behind most of the juvenile behavioral problems, one main reason is always the active sexual urge which drives the young people to indulge themselves in harmful activities like drug abuse and alcoholism. It is also commonly observed that young teenagers who indulge into such activities are unaware of proper sex education. Once they are given a true picture of sex and its consequences their mental status relaxes and they are easily able to cope with other social taboos.

Parents, who believe that sex education pollutes the minds of their children, have in large number taken their children out of schools promoting sex education. In this process of instilling in their minds their religious and family values, they forget that the media, their children are largely exposed to can also lead them astray. Sex education in schools does not in any way offers them an invitation to have open sex by making them aware of the risks; it just educates them about the matter in the best way.

Apart from educating the students about safe sex, sex education in schools is also helpful as it helps students to learn proper terminology for reproductive system, STDs and birth contraceptives rather than the street lingo that is commonly used by laymen. Sex education classes are gender based and that is why the young learners are not embarrassed and are only taught what is related to their gender. Early inclusion of classes also helps the teenagers to either become abstinent for some time or to become responsible if they are already active. Therefore, many sexual problems that occur in adulthood can be controlled if effective and apt sex education is given at the right time.

A proper sex education which is holistic, nonjudgmental and comprehensive never misleads or misguides the teenagers. Such a curriculum should be imposed in all schools around the nation; it is an answer to many social problems and conflicts. Would any parent leave their kindergarten kids to walk alone on the streets without letting them know how to walk safely? No parent would actually do that, in the same way, letting your teenager children socialize with their peers and fellows without any proper sexual education is nothing contrary to the analogy mentioned above. It is hazardous and risky for their lives. Thus, proper sex education in schools should be encouraged so that they learn all the significant facts through trained teachers, who help and supports them in these matters of highly crucial value. Sex education should be taken as a positive aspect which promises healthier and better life for the youngsters. It therefore should be taken as a subject taught in schools to enhance knowledge on the subject matter; something merely as human anatomy or biology class. Sex education should be given in all schools to educate the children for their betterment, avoiding it will only result in emotional, social and health problems.

Source by Amna Tariq Shah