USMLE Step 1 Exam – Briefly Explained

Toppers are always looked with awe, be it USMLE or any other exams. They are some who think that toppers possess some mysterious powers or intelligence, which helps them score, while others are left scratching their heads in wonder. However there is no such special power; the thing that differentiates the two is their approach towards the examination.

Passing the USMLE exams needs great effort as these are conducted over a series of varying levels. Clearing the very first step is considered the most strenuous for medical graduates hoping to practice in the United States. USMLE is not just confined to US nationals only; foreign nationals can apply too, but with some differentiated procedural rules.

Clearing USMLE step 1 exam with good scores can open up more doors than you might have thought. A decent step 1 score is not just confined to obtaining a license, but is a determinant factor for hospital residency programs. Score good and you have two great options to choose from. Step 1 exam score also plays a pivotal role in making up your choice for further medicinal courses. Prestigious residential hospitals are obviously looking for the smartest graduates around and those with high scores fill in the gap.

While step 2 is used to assess a student’s skill to put into use of what he/she studied, USMLE step 1 checks for a student’s understanding and knowledge levels. The various sections that the step 1 exam covers include physiology, pathology, anatomy, microbiology among others. With around 322 multiple choice questions divided in 7 sections, USMLE step 1 exam looks scary enough.

USMLE exams are thought to be one of the toughest to appear for and passing the first level is itself considered to be a game only for nerds. Students are always in a self doubt mode as to whether they are ready to appear for USMLE exams or not. Getting good scores in USMLE exams is not impossible at all; some smart tactics and you would get through. Why exactly is this exam so dreadful? Apprehensions say that it is the time constraint that medical students are faced with, which plays the spoilsport. Medical students do find it hard to adjust their studies and prepare for exams in short stipulated times.

Having a question bank by your side is a must if you are appearing for USMLE step 1 exam. This step 1 exam is meant to assess a student’s theoretical knowledge to the practical field of medicine. A multiple choice examination like this is sure to set in a lot of confusion with similar answer choices. No wonder students find this 8-hour examination tough enough but they have to deal with it if they are to enter the medicinal world. Additionally, the various rules set in to answer the MCQ’s are looked upon with fear by students. A single mistake here and there and your scores are on the risk mode.

Why take risk in your USMLE exam scores when there is easy help available? Preparing with online test guides is a good way out to avoid treading the wrong path. Regular practice with dummy exams can be a good confidence booster.


Source by Sunny Dabla

Asperger’s Syndrome and Color Therapy: The Power of Orange

After packing three bright orange shirts in the luggage of my ten year old son so that his grandparents could locate him easily during a trip, I accidentally discovered what psychologists and color advocates have known for years. The color orange is a terrific color for children with Asperger’s Syndrome.

Asperger’s Syndrome, named after the Austrian physician Hans Asperger who first identified the characteristics in the 1940’s, is a disorder falling in the autistic spectrum characterized among other things by a lack of social skills and eye contact, obsessive interests, clumsiness, ticks or compulsive behaviors, and an unusually expansive vocabulary. Being a disorder and not a disease, there is no “cure” for Aspergers, but that isn’t to say that there are not treatments or that children with Aspergers can’t learn to modify their behavior to better fit with their peers. And color is a subtle therapy that can be consciously used to help them learn moderate their emotional state and ultimately their behavior.

Based on his skin tone and steel gray eyes, I tended to dress my son in blues and greens, opting for orange on this particular trip because it was his first long adventure sans parental supervision. Orange shirts, though popular in hunting circles, are rarely fashionable in tourist locations and I wanted to give his grandparents as much assistance as possible in keeping tabs on a youngster who tends to wander.

Not only did the boy wear the orange shirts exclusively during the trip, he had other choices, but surprisingly they became his favorite shirts upon his return. It wasn’t until that point that I started researching how they must be making him feel.

The Eastern teachers have long associated colors with different body organs and systems. For my purpose, it was sufficient to realize that the orange robes donned by many eastern monks were not a random choice. Apparently, orange invokes happiness, joy, creativity, and a positive attitude. It is a great color to mitigate depression, and depression is terribly common in awkward children who desperately want to fit in, but don’t know how. Orange stimulates feelings of well being and social connectiveness. In short, the color orange subtly reinforces many of the areas where Aspergers children face challenges.

By dressing my son in orange during an adventure fraught with new experiences and no small sense of apprehension, I was arming him with a color that purportedly strengthened his emotional state, deepened his sense of calmness, and expanded his ability to be social. Talk about the luck of the draw!

My son’s positive experience of the impact a single color had on his life opened up a universe of inexpensive and easily available options of alternative therapies and techniques that we can add to our toolbox in this journey of discovery and improvement.


Source by Elizabeth Micallef

Formulation Of Human Resources Strategy

The formulation of the organization’s human resources strategy begins with basic questions concerning how employment will be structured, what corporate culture will be fostered, how careers will unfold in the organization, what sort of employees will be sought, and so forth. Within this general category of tasks we include both organization-wide human resources strategy and the tailoring of that strategy to specific business units, regional units, functions, or divisions.

Especially important in terms of organization-wide strategy are answers to the questions: How consistent should human resources policies and practices be throughout the enterprise? Where are distinctions in policies and practices (across locales or employee subgroups) desirable? How much latitude should particular organizational units be given in formulating their own human resources strategies?

After the broad outlines of strategy have been set, questions about general policies arise, such as: What will be the broad base of compensation and performance management throughout the organization or in particular units? What tasks will be outsourced, and will the outsourcing be done via labor contractors or independent contractors? What training will be done in-house, and what will be outsourced, and to whom? It is hard to draw a line between strategy and policy, and we will not make any attempt to do so: In this category we will include any human resources related activity that sets rules for the management of human resources that apply broadly to groups of employees.

Formulating strategy and general policies, it seems to us, is a managerial task of the utmost importance. It is fraught with ambiguity; there is no checklist of what to do or what to think about. The outcomes are noisy-how do you know if you’ve succeeded? Results often take a long time to be realized. Interdependencies with other parts of business strategy are tight.

At the same time, dependence on local environmental conditions can be important, so the local environment must be well understood by those who formulate human resources strategy and policies. Finally, the tasks here strongly mix guardian and star elements. Poorly aligned or inconsistent human resources policies and practices can be devastating for an organization. At the same time, the ability to see beyond conventional wisdom, to put together a human resources system that works especially well, is as potent a competitive weapon as one can imagine.

– Implementation of Strategy and Policies. In this category we have in mind tasks that involve nontrivial judgment in fitting general policies and procedures to specific cases. Performance evaluation of individuals and teams, crafting job designs, decisions on whom to hire (and where specifically to look, although this could be construed as part of policy formation), decisions on whom to promote, decisions on training for individuals, specific layoff decisions, and the like all fit here.

Ambiguity in these tasks is not particularly high if a well-formed set of human resources policies and practices is in place; however, outcomes are noisy and feedback can be substantially delayed. Interdependencies with other parts of the business can be substantial; decision-makers should have a fairly well-developed “big picture” of the organization or, at least, of the specific function involved. Because of reputation and social comparison effects, these tasks are predominately guardian roles, although especially when it comes to recognition of talent and accurate placement of individuals, some star aspects are involved.

– Record Keeping, Compliance, and Personnel Service Delivery. Here we have in mind those tasks that, unfortunately, have come to dominate many line managers’ perceptions of what the human resources Department does: compliance reports; keeping employee records; filling out forms for benefits and payroll; and so forth, on down to buying the beverages and pizza for the regularly scheduled employee beer blast.

There isn’t a lot of ambiguity here and performance is fairly easily monitored. The job is a mix of some guardian and mainly foot-soldier tasks: Screwing up compliance reports can get the firm in trouble with legal authorities, and a bad benefits office can reduce employee morale pretty quickly, but management that isn’t completely asleep or complacent can usually avoid the big disasters in this realm.

This enumeration of the tasks involved in doing human resources management helps clarify a root problem with how human resources is traditionally organized. In the traditional organization, this bundles together all these tasks, a small fraction of the activities account for a huge proportion of the value added by the function, by creating potential upside and/or helping the organization avoid downside disasters. In contrast, most of the activities conducted, measured by time expended or paper consumed, are the routine foot-soldier tasks, perceived as adding little value by managers and employees. Complying with rules and filling out forms imposed by central human resources regarding job searches, performance appraisal, or compensation and benefits – or being required to have a human resources representative present during a sensitive conference with a subordinate are frequently not viewed as helping matters very much. And employees, once they are hired, often interact with the human resources department only when they have a problem or concern, so they may not have an especially positive view of the function either.

In any event, it is not altogether surprising that a function that is perceived as responsible for explaining benefits programs, processing change-of-address forms, complying with governmental regulations, and enforcing policies that limit managers’ discretion on how they can treat employees-or that is touted as the “conscience” or “kinder, gentler side” of the corporation-is unlikely to be viewed as a hard-charging, tough-minded, strategic business partner.

In addition it’s easier to measure how well the human resources department is doing in terms of filling out forms and delivering routine services; it’s a lot harder to measure how well it does at formulating and implementing a human resources strategy.


Source by Artur Victoria

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.


Source by Sanjoy Deka

The Pros and Cons of Adopting IFRS by Lei Shi

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a set of accounting standards developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

IFRS has been adopted by more than 12,000 companies in over 100 nations and is becoming the global standard for the preparation of financial statements of public companies throughout the world. However, in the U.S., GAAP (General Accepted Accounting Principles) is applied. Recently, the G20 leaders have called for significant progress towards moving to one set of high-quality global accounting standards. President Obama also called for one set of standards and substantial progress to be made in 2009. Now SEC is working on an updated “roadmap” that will layout a schedule and major milestones for moving U.S. towards its adoption by all U.S. public companies. There are advantages and disadvantages of converting to IFRS, and various arguments have made for and against its adoption.

A single set of accounting standards will provide comparability, and enable companies from different parts of the world to apply the same standards. It increases transparency, allowing easier cross-border investment with greater liquidity and low cost of capital. It will also cut down the time and costs of preparing financial statements according to different standards and regulations, achieving enormous savings of capital in the longer term. The transition cost is estimated to be 8 billion dollars for the entire U.S. economy, with average one-time cost of $3.24 million dollars for multinational corporations. Since the financial reports were reduced from three to one, they will save money in the long run. The adoption of IFRS and use of uniform accounting standards will also eliminate the possible different accounting results from applying different standards and help investors to pursue various strategies including global investment diversification.Many companies may soon be required to report in multiple accounting standards if the US does not either accept or move toward IFRS. Maintaining multiple standards reporting only increases accounting and auditing costs and provides no value to any country. Over 100 countries have adopted or in the process of adopting IFRS. Delays in adopting IFRS by the US will make multi-national companies to report their primary reports in IFRS, resulting in parallel reports in US GAAP.

This will create more auditing fees and possible errors. The US should move towards the IFRS standards as a matter of urgency. As more and more countries adopt IFRS, it is in the U.S. interests to apply the same accounting standards. Most of the U.S. companies will benefit from one set of accounting standards since are multinational companies and they operating globally. IFRS will make it easier to control and monitor their subsidiaries in foreign countries and achieve cost savings from maintaining several accounting standards. It can also help to eliminate potential financial misunderstandings and simplify investment decisions. With its strong moral standard, intolerance for unethical behavior, the US has been a world leader for centuries. Its financial and accounting standards have been used by other countries as a yardstick to measure their economic and financial success until recently. We need to be a leader and the driving force in establishing and adopting international standards.

It is the time for us to get involved and play an important role in shaping the international standards. Otherwise, it will hurt us in the long run. Competition works and is a good thing because it will ensure better quality with lower price. Competition between different sets of standards will offer the advantage of getting better information. There is really no one size fits all standards. The uniform single accounting standard can stifle innovation, ingenuity, competition, creativity and capitalism entrepreneurship. The differences between GAAP and other countries’ standards can be very useful and provide insight into the reasons and values they conduct financial reporting in a particular way. By focusing on our differences, we will benefit from increased productivity, higher quality, technological innovation, thus better meet the demands of the marketplace. Switching to IFSB will give IASB monopoly status, with the potential to compromise the quality of the IASB standards. A recent survey shows that to convert to IFRS, U.S. companies have to pay more than their European counterparts. The added benefits of comparability versus cost to implement IFRS will not justify the adoption.

According to the SEC, it will cost.12% of revenues to implement the standards nationwide, which means the cost can be as high as several billion dollars. The cost to achieve the additional comparability is not worth several billion dollars. It will drain on our slowly recovering economy. From a cost benefit perspective, convergence is obviously superior to adoption. Transition to IFRS itself can present be a lot of challenges. The economy of the U.S. is the largest in the world and nobody knows exactly the scope and magnitude of applying IFRS to such a large economy. IFRS has not been tested in any country like the U.S. On the other hand, U.S. GAAP has been evolving with various changes in the U.S. and stands the test of time, especially the frauds such as Enron and Tyco International.

Enforcement can also create some problems. While the U.S. has effective enforcement, it is very challenging to implement stringent enforcement among those member countries due to the differences in economic and political system among the adopting nations and their financial reporting practices. In summary, adopting IFRS will provide comparability, increased audit efficiency, reduced information misunderstanding and cost savings as more and more economic activities become globalized. The flip side is it will eliminate competition and incentives to innovate. The quality will suffer since compromises have to be made to achieve consensus due to various political pressures and economic interest. However many support for a move to a single set global accounting standards and it is believed that the U.S. will ultimately IFRS or have IFRS and U.S. GAAP coexist.


Source by Ashlley Jarmari

Preparation Tips for NISM Mutual Fund Distributors Certification Exam

NISM-Series-V A: Mutual Fund Distributors Certification Examination is one of the important exams, conducted by NISM (National Institute of Securities Market). It’s very helpful module for the peoples, those are willing to work in the field of mutual funds. The aim of this certification is to enhance the quality of sales, distribution and related support services in the mutual fund industry.

To clear NISM Series V A: M. F. D. Certification Exam, candidate should have knowledge of following things:

  1. Concept and role : Before attempting NISM V-A Certification Exam, you should have a clear picture of MF in your mind. In other words, we can say that how it works. So just try to know the concept and role model of a mutual fund. In this section, you have to learn lot of things like Advantages and limitations of a mutual fund, Exchange Traded Funds (ETF), Investment objectives, Fund running expenses and some of the others.
  2. Fund Structure and Constituents: In this, you need to learn the things about the Structure of MF in India and related regulations, Role of the sponsor and Role of other fund constituents and related regulations.
  3. Legal and Regulatory Environment: Know the Role and functions of SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) in regulating MF and take a look on investment restrictions and related regulations.

There are some other important sections in this module as: Offer Document, Fund Distribution and Sales Practices, Accounting, Valuation and Taxation, Investor Services, Risk, Return and Performance of Funds, Scheme Selection, Selecting the Right Investment products for Investors, Helping Investors with Financial Planning and Recommending Model Portfolios and Financial Plans.

Before attempting NISM Series V A Certification exam, you should have knowledge of above listed things. Now collect relevant information from your books or try to find out the things online. In modern age, it’s very easy to find out any of the informations online easily and quickly. You may also collect some information from the site of NISM.

So learning all of the above listed things will help you in clearing NISM-Series-V A: M. F. D. Certification Examination easily with high marks.

Other thing, you can find out the model paper of NISM series-V-A online for preparation. Take a mock test or practice test online for the module of NISM Series V A: Mutual Fund Distributors Certification Exam. Now you can also test yourself by giving NISM series V A mock test online.


Source by Suman Dhankhar